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About World of Shipping Portugal Founder and Owner
Ana Cristina F. C. Paixão Casaca (from now on Ana Casaca) was born and grew in the shipping environment. She recalls the codfish fishing boats in Aveiro, the old Fogo and Gerês tanker vessels in Cabo Ruivo, the cargo and passenger vessels that traded to the Azores and Madeira loading and unloading cows at Cais da Rocha in Alcantara. She had seen Mar da Palha, in the Port of Lisbon, full of cargo vessels at the time when containerisation was still at its infancy, and unaware of the changes that a box would cause in the movement of goods. For all these reasons, shipping is a passion that runs in her veins.
Ana Casaca holds a PhD in International Transport/Logistics from the University of Wales – Cardiff and her Thesis focused on the “Competitiveness of Short Sea Shipping in Multimodal Logistics Supply Chains”. Her academic background is supported by her nautical career in the shipping industry. In 1985, she earned her elementary nautical studies degree at Escola Náutica Infante D. Henrique (ENIDH) in Paço D’Arcos, Portugal. She was a deck officer in Portuguese shipping companies and some years later taught at the Instituto de Tecnologias Náuticas, Portugal. In 1995, she earned her Bachelor Degree in Management and Maritime Technologies at ENIDH, and two years later, in 1997, she obtained her M.Sc. Degree in International Logistics at the Institute of Marine Studies, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom. In July 1998, she obtained her professional accreditation from the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, London, after having sat for seven exams, namely ‘Introduction to Shipping’, ‘Law of Carriage of Goods by Sea’, ‘Economics of Sea Transport’, ‘Shipping Practice’, ‘Dry Cargo Chartering’, ‘Liner Trades’ and ‘International Through Transport Management’. She successfully obtained her PhD in International Transport/Logistics in 2003.
Between 1998 and 2007, she published several articles of a professional nature in Portuguese industry magazines. As from 2001, she also focused on research publishings. Her work can be found in well-known international maritime-related journals (International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, International Journal of Ocean Systems Management, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics, International Journal of Transport Management, Journal of International Logistics and Trade, Marine Policy, Maritime Business Review, Maritime Economics and Logistics, and Maritime Policy and Management).
Since 2004, she has organised industry and research related conferences. She organised with Cargo Edições the 18th International Port Training Conference. Later, she also organised with Cargo Edições and chaired the 2010 Annual Conference of the International Association of Maritime Economists Association  Association and the 2012 International Research Conference on Short Sea Shipping.  Under the umbrella of ‘World of Shipping Portugal’ she organised and chaired the 2019 World of Shipping Portugal, An International Research Conference on Maritime Affairs, and is currently organising the 2021 World of Shipping Portugal, An International Research Conference on Maritime Affairs.
Also within the scope of research, she has been invited, since 2002, to peer review academic papers submitted to well-known international Journals and to participate as a member of several Conferences International Scientific Committees. Moreover, the European Commission has been inviting her, since 2003, as an External Expert in the field of transport to evaluate transport-related proposals and to review transport-related projects (Belgium).
In cooperation with Leo Tadeu Robles, she translated into Portuguese the third edition of the “Maritime Economics” book written by Martin Stopford.
Currently, she is developing and implementing the ‘World of Shipping Portugal’ initiative (of which she is the Founder and Owner), is a research associate of Research Centre on Modelling and Optimisation of Multifunctional Systems (CIMOSM, ISEL), Associate Editor of Maritime Business Review and an Editorial Board Member of the Journal of International Logistics and Trade. She is a member of the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers (ICS), of the International Association of Maritime Economists (IAME) and the Women’s International Shipping and Trading Association Portugal (WISTA Portugal).
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Ana Cristina Casaca can be reached at one of the following emails:
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Published Research Papers

Paixão Casaca, A. C. and Lyridis, D. V. (XXXX). The Reasons and the Policy Instruments behind Cabotage Policies. Maritime Policy & Management, to be published.
Abstract: Research performed on maritime cabotage in a worldwide context shows that 1) few countries have adopted either pure protectionist or liberalised cabotage policies while 2) most countries have favoured protectionist cabotage policies with different degrees of freedom. The same research also identified 1) a set of reasons influencing policymakers when choosing one policy in detriment of the other and 2) the corresponding policy instruments. This paper extends the research previously carried out; through an email survey questionnaire sent to researchers worldwide, it investigates, which of the listed reasons and policy instruments contribute to implementing either liberalised or protectionist cabotage policies. The outcome indicates that more than half of the respondents favour cabotage liberalisation, as opposed to the current status quo and reveals that the initial list of protectionist and liberalised reasons and policy instruments must be aggregated differently. No outstanding reasons or policy instruments, leading countries to adopt either protectionist or liberalised cabotage policies, have been identified.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C. and Lyridis, D. V. (2018). Protectionist vs. liberalised maritime cabotage policies: A Review. Maritime Business Review, 3(3), 210-242.
Abstract: Purpose – The development of the current European Economic Area maritime cabotage market occurred when, at a policy level, the European Union forced the opening of its Member-States cabotage markets to Community shipowners and extended this openness, in 1997, to the European Free Trade Area countries. A two-tier cabotage market emerged, where a European Economic Area legislative framework co-exists with the legislative acts of each Member-State. With such a unique background, this paper investigates both the European Economic Area Member-States and the Rest of the World cabotage regimes and identifies a list of reasons and policy measures used to implement cabotage policies. Design/methodology/approach - By means of a desk research methodological approach, this paper analyses, from a geographical perspective, different countries’ cabotage policies and classifies them, and identifies in a systematically way a set of reasons and policy instruments that support each of chosen policies approach. Findings - The outcome indicates that only a few countries promote free liberalised cabotage services and that most countries favour protectionist cabotage policies, whose governments can control the number of foreign vessels participating in these trades. Cabotage regimes have been categorised and the reasons behind both policies and respective policy instruments have been identified. Originality/value – Quite often, researchers only focus on the cabotage policies of the European Economic Area countries, the United States, Australia, Japan, and South Korea. This paper value rests on its ability to incorporate cabotage policies from other African, Asian, and Latin American countries and to update existing information on the subject. Overall, this paper paves the way to broaden the cabotage knowledge.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C. and Casaca, M. N (2017). The Impact of Muddy Bottom in Ports. Maritime Policy & Management, 44(5), 584-602.
Abstract: Ports are drivers of regional and of countries’ economic development. Most ports are built close to coastlines, where waters are shallower and tend to suffer from deposit sedimentation processes, which reduce depths in operational areas. In presence of shallow waters and sedimentation, ports must decide whether to dredge or not, where both decisions have significant impacts on ports’ annual incomes. Nevertheless, there are seabeds, namely muddy bottoms, in which vessels can navigate with a safety degree. This paper aims at investigating the extent to which the theoretical knowledge of vessel’s control in muddy waters is valid at a certain nautical bottom, as defined by the Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses (since 2009 the World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure but the acronym stays PIANC) and its impact on port economics. To achieve the proposed objective an email survey was sent to worldwide pilots that manoeuvre ships in muddy waters. The survey validated the theoretical knowledge, showed that navigation in muddy waters is possible, that it can contribute to reduce ports’ operational costs, and that the subject can be rather controversial.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C., Galvão, C. B., Robles, L. T. and Cutrim, S. S. (2017). The Brazilian cabotage market: a content analysis. International Journal Shipping and Transport Logistics, 9(5), 601-625.
Abstract: The development of domestic short sea shipping (SSS) (hereinafter cabotage) services along the Brazilian coast has drawn the attention of economic and political players since the early 1800s, when the Brazilian internal market was under development. In 1993, subject to the Port Modernization Act, the Federal Government adopted a new regulatory framework to provide cabotage services, which resulted in a non-competitive situation derived from capacity and operational restrictions. This situation is a tough challenge, particularly after 2003, when Brazil has witnessed an economic boom. Despite this, cabotage came to the forefront of the industry and of research and development and numerous studies and papers of an industry and academic nature have been presented and published nationally. The paper consolidates the available information coherently, which is scattered among many documents, investigates the Brazilian cabotage market by mapping demand and supply and by analyzing its strengths and weaknesses. The paper identifies that cabotage faces numerous weaknesses and presents a set of solutions, that can only be solved and implemented in the medium-long-term, respectively, which require high investments and regulatory changes. The paper suggests some economic and political changes to be performed at an industry and government levels.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C., Galvão, C. B., Robles, L. T. and Cutrim, S. S. (2017). Domestic short sea shipping services in Brazil: competition by enhancing logistics integration. International Journal Shipping and Transport Logistics, 9(3), 280-303.
Abstract: The economy of Brazil has the potential to further develop its existing maritime cabotage services by promoting a modal shift from the road to the sea. The road represents the biggest share in the Brazilian transport matrix, but the larger waterborne participation represents lower logistics costs and greater environmental benefits. This paper investigates cabotage users’ perception and priorities in integrating cabotage into their multimodal transport systems. It analyses the cabotage and transport choice body of literature, the outcome of which was applied to 326 potential domestic cabotage users through an email survey questionnaire made up of open and closed questions, which resulted in 30 answers suitable for analysis by univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. The 59 service attributes identified were grouped into 13 factors, which explained 89.6% of the modal choice. The conclusions show that cabotage users aim to enhance the integration of logistics between transport modes and to adopt modal shift strategies if better services could be provided, including a real-time information system, shorter transit times and freight offered on a door-to-door basis.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C., Carvalho, S. and Oliveira, M. (2013). Improving port of Sines competitiveness. A subjective benchmarking approach. International Journal Shipping and Transport Logistics, 5(2), pp.174-216.
Abstract: Sines was known to be an oil terminal, but today the port comprises five terminals serving different trades. This results i) from an ambitious development plan and ii) from the strong efforts to integrate the port in the trans-European transport networks. Sines Container Terminal is seen as an added value to the port and through its operation existing short sea shipping (SSS) trades are expected to expand and business opportunities and challenges are expected to emerge in both deep sea and SSS trades. The paper assesses Sines competitiveness in the SSS market relatively to other European ports. A benchmarking technique was used based on information gathered from an email perception survey sent to European port authorities. The outcome shows Sines competitiveness, despite four criteria ranked below relatively to the average. To sustain and improve its competitiveness, the paper presents a sub-criteria list that Sines needs to address in the medium- and long-terms.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C. (2012). European policies on short sea shipping and their impact on ‘private operators. International Journal of Ocean Systems Management, 1(3/4), pp.358-383.
Abstract: The environmental damages caused by road transport led European Commission to present a series of measures to promote the use of environmentally friendly transport modes or a combination of such modes, where the role and the impact of road transport could be minimised. Short sea shipping was identified as one of the transport modes that offered this potential. Since 1992, the commission embarked on a promotion programme, which was further sustained by the development of the ‘trans-European transport networks’ and by what was called an ‘integrated maritime policy’. This paper analyses the impact of European policies on short sea shipping private operators. The findings suggest that the final and desired development of the short sea shipping industry may be delayed given the numerous issues that the industry needs to meet to fulfil the policies in the area of: transport, maritime, short sea shipping and intermodal given the present European bad economic and financial situation.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C. (2012). An analytical exposition of the European policies on maritime economy from their inception to present day. International Journal of Ocean Systems Management, 1(3/4), pp.238-269.
Abstract: Since the establishment of the European Union, both European transport and maritime policies suffered from numerous ups and downs. Both of them came to be addressed on a continuous basis by the Council of the European Union, when the European Commission presented the 1985 Communication on the completion of the internal market where acknowledged that transport played an important role in the European economy. Since then and until today, numerous communications have been released to the extent that the transport infrastructure policy was split from transport policy, and today maritime transport falls within the scope of a broad integrated maritime policy. The present research work aims at investigating European transport and maritime policies from their inception to the very present day and at analysing their impact on the European maritime economy. The outcome of the paper shows that both transport and maritime policies increased their complexity due to the numerous background areas that they address today such as energy, environment and labour issues. Also, the present maritime policy contributes to devise a new maritime economy structure that can help the Europe Union to sustain its maritime role in the world economy.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C. and Marlow, P. B. (2009). Logistics strategies for SSS operating as part of multimodal transport. Maritime Policy and Management, 36(1), pp1-19.
Abstract: Numerous studies about logistics strategies have been carried out but more often than not researchers have adopted a descriptive rather than a quantitative approach. The quantitative approach was addressed for the first time in 1987 and much of the work performed has been focused on North American based companies, thus creating a bias. Most studies have addressed product-oriented companies rather than service ones and the logistics strategies identified are of a general nature and often based on the work performed by Bowersox and Daugherty [1]. To reverse this trend, this research investigates by means of a questionnaire specific logistics strategies that short sea operators can implement to integrate short sea shipping into multimodal transport chains. To achieve this, 75 potential best-practices were reduced by using factor analysis into a list of 13 functional strategies, of which eight were considered logistics strategies. The term best practice refers to a management idea that is supported by proper processes and provides superior performance; when associated with other management ideas, best-practices help to develop a logistic strategy that gives an organization a competitive advantage.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C. (2008). Motorway of the sea port requirements: the viewpoint of port authorities. International Journal of Logistics Research and Application, 11(4), pp.279-294.
Abstract: The short sea shipping reports presented by the European Commission have shown that this industry segment is still lagging behind road transport and suffering from numerous constraints. To foster the elimination of the latter, the 2003 action programme on the promotion of short sea shipping presented 14 measures, one of which concerned motorways of the sea. In this respect, the 2003 High Level Group chaired by Karel van Miert defined four motorways of the sea within Project 21 of the revised trans-European transport network and presented a definition of the concept. Motorways of the sea are international short sea shipping services between ports located in two or more countries that aim at replacing land motorways to avoid congested roads/lanes, and linking European continental and island countries (European Commission 2003a). The challenge for short sea shipping rests on the revolution that the motorways of the sea are believed to make as many changes are expected to occur, particularly at port and ships’ technology levels. The concept presupposes the integration of a trans-European shipping network within the trans-European road and rail networks; the High Level Group sees motorways of the sea as a floating infrastructure capable of consolidating freight along certain trade routes where ports are special interfaces characterised by particular features. To identify these features an investigation was carried out by means of an email survey questionnaire. The findings show the viewpoint of port authorities regarding this matter and suggest a list of 21 pre-requisites that ports can use to assess their potential as a motorway of the sea interface; in addition, they can be used by governmental bodies when deciding whether to support financially motorways of the sea interfaces projects or not.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C. and Marlow, P. B. (2007). The impact of the trans-European transport networks on the development of short sea shipping. Maritime Economics and Logistics, 9(4), pp.302-323.
Abstract: The need to shift goods from road to underused transport capacity led the European Commission to embark on the development of two important policies: one concerning short sea shipping (SSS) and the other concerning the trans-European transport network (TEN-T). While for many years these policies were delineated separately, the introduction of ports and Project 21 in the TEN-T brought these two policies together. In light of this, the aim of this paper is to assess the impact of the TEN-T on SSS. To achieve this, the paper describes the SSS market segment; it puts into a historical perspective the TEN-T policy; and it carries out an assessment of the impact of the TEN-T on SSS.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C. (2006). Insights into the port training of the new European Union Member-States. Maritime Policy and Management, 33(3), pp.203-217.
Abstract: The establishment and implementation of a training programme requires a training needs assessment (TNA). Without this approach, more often than not, training programmes have failed to succeed and to make such an assessment the instructional designer, i.e. the person in charge for this work, needs to follow a methodology. Unlike the other industries, the port industry has neglected the use of these methodologies, which is shown by the lack of research work published in academic journals. With a view to fill the existing gap, the paper proposes a five-step TNA methodology to be used in the port industry and applies its first three steps to investigate the port training situation in the new European Union member states. To achieve this objective, the paper is structured in the following way: Section 1 puts the research work into context; section 2 addresses the role of ports; section 3 presents a port TNA methodology; section 4 explains research methodology; section 5 addresses port training issues in the new European-member states; and section 6 presents conclusions and further comments.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C. and Marlow, P. B. (2005). The competitiveness of short sea shipping in multimodal logistics supply chains: service attribute. Maritime Policy and Management, 32(4), pp.363-382.
Abstract: Much has been written and spoken about short sea shipping within the European Union (EU) as a means of shifting goods from road to sea and of achieving a sustainable economic development. However, this shift is far from being a general reality, despite the few individual, and success stories that have taken place and the EUROSTAT data suggest that the overall effort has contributed very little towards attaining this desired shift. In the light of this, research was conducted to discover how to put short sea shipping on a more competitive level within European multimodal logistics supply chains. This paper aims at identifying service attributes of short sea shipping operations within multimodal transport chains by means of a questionnaire and, for that, examines the short sea shipping environment and contemporary European logistics trends. The analysis is based on empirical research, involving logistics operators, shippers’ associations and intermodal rail operators, and allows an evaluation (based on statistical techniques) of the short sea shipping industry and its competitors. It extends previous work by considering these short sea shipping attributes within a multimodal transport context.
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Paixão Casaca, A. C. (2005). Simulation and the lean port environment. Maritime Economics and Logistics, 7(3), pp.262-280.
Abstract: This paper considers the applicability of simulation tools in the development of lean ports and lean ports networks. To achieve its objective the paper analyses how container terminal operations work, gives an introduction to simulation, and provides an insight how simulation has been used in a port environment. The focus on a container terminal can be explained by the need to optimise resources, by the capability of a terminal to achieve very fast cargo handling rates, and by the simplification of intermodal transfer. The use of simulation tools has been of growing importance in port activities, especially when these are limited by physical constraints. The paper is structured as follows: Section 1 provides an introduction; Section 2 describes port industry operations; Section 3 introduces simulation; Section 4 assesses the impact of simulation on the development of lean ports and lean ports networks; and Section 5 presents conclusions and further comments.
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Marlow, P. B. and Paixão Casaca, A. C. (2004). Short sea shipping and its role in logistics supply chains: A European perspective. Journal of International Logistics and Trade, 2(1), pp.57-68.
Abstract: This paper has presented a brief description of the SSS industry in Europe and has discussed what is meant by this industry, what type of ships are involved, what cargoes are carried, what are the main geographical areas of operations, what are the industry’s strengths and weaknesses, and what users require from the industry before it can become a realistic choice for many in multimodal logistics transport chains.
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Marlow, P. B. and Paixão Casaca, A. C. (2003). Marlow. Measuring lean ports performance. International Journal of Transport Management, 1(4), pp.189-202.
Abstract: Ports have traditionally made use of quantitative measures to assess their performance. While contributing towards ranking a port in the worldwide context or even classifying ports according to their size, these provide little information about the quality of the services being offered. The trends in contemporary logistics and the emerging of the new economy mean that successful ports can no longer sustain this approach. It is therefore suggested that ports become agile. Agile ports entail a new approach to measuring port performance. Because its development requires the implementation of a two-stage integration process, internal and external, it is therefore proposed that a two-tier measurement of port performance indicators is also developed. The new port measurement indicators, besides considering quantitative aspects, will also focus on qualitative issues as they bring increasing visibility within the port environment and along the transport chain, enhancing a better integration of all supply chain logistics elements. Qualitative performance indicators are at the heart of lean ports and consequently of port networking. Additionally, they support a total quality port management system implementation which encourages continuous improvements. The objective of this paper is to suggest a set of new port performance indicators that measure lean port performance and sustain the subsequent development of agile ports.
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Paixão, A. C. and Marlow, P. B. (2003). Fourth Generation Ports - A Question of Agility. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 33(4), pp.355-376.
Abstract: Since the Second World War, ports have been going through an evolution which the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) refers to as generations. The generation of a port reflects whether the approach adopted by port authorities/operators in developing their activities is likely to be reactive or proactive. These activities start with the traditional ones (cargo loading and discharging) and end up with the establishment of a wide range of logistics and value-added activities, developed in conjunction with industrial and commercial businesses. This generation of ports, classified as third generation, would be sufficient if the world economic growth pattern could be forecast with any certainty. Unfortunately, this is not the case and the external environment today comprises constant changes that are reflected in the high levels of market uncertainty. To cope with this uncertainty it is suggested that ports should adopt a new logistics approach, agility, which has already been employed in other industries. This paper provides a definition of fourth generation ports and a methodology for implementing the concept of agile ports.
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Paixão, A. C. and Marlow, P. B. (2002). Strengths and weaknesses of short sea shipping. Marine Policy, 26(3), pp.167-178.
Abstract: The past, present and expected future growth rates of freight transport have led the European Union to promote a common transport policy supporting the shift of goods from road to sea, thereby making use of the latter’s underused available capacity. Therefore, the provision of a door-to-door transport service, where a sea-leg is introduced, requires both the complementarity of the other modes of transport and the implementation of the concept of mode interoperability. The latter provides for the smooth transfer of goods since wastes, which are represented in terms of friction costs, are eliminated or reduced to a minimum. However, to implement that shift it is necessary to appreciate the strengths and weaknesses of short sea shipping (SSS), so that the right strategies are identified, though a list of possible measures to utilise this mode has already been identified. A new approach to SSS is also introduced to clarify some concepts attached to it. 
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M. C., Pato, M. V. and Paixão, A. C. (2002). Ship assignment with hub and spoke constraints. Maritime Policy and Management, 29(2), pp.135-150.
Abstract: As the shipping industry enters the future, an increasing number of technological developments are being introduced into this market. This has led to a significant change in business operations, such as the innovative design of hub and spoke systems, resulting in cargo consolidation and a better use of the ship’s capacity. In the light of this new scenario, the authors present a successful application of integer linear programming to support the decision-making process of assigning ships to previously defined voyages - the rosters. The tool used to build the final models was the MS-Excel Solver (Microsoft Excel 97 SR-2, 1997), a package that enabled the real case studies addressed to be solved. The results of the experiment prompted the authors to favour the assignment of very small fleets, as opposed to the existing high number of ships employed in such real trades.
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Paixão, A. C. and Marlow, P. B. (2001). A review on the European Union shipping policy. Maritime Policy and Management, 28(2), pp.187-198.
Abstract: It is the aim of the European Union to develop a transport policy that supports its economic and sustainable growth and where the concept of sustainable mobility is a driver in the development of such policy. To achieve this goal, the European Union (EU) is promoting the shift of goods to unused existing capacity in rail and sea modes. As such, it is the objective of this paper to carry out a review of the European shipping policy at a time when the EU Member-States are suffering from high levels of congestion, noise and pollution that not only affect the environment but also the quality of life of all citizens. This paper considers the development of EU shipping policy in three stages.
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