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Conference Research Papers
 
 
2021 - Co-written with Claudio J. M. Soares. In the Quest for the Port Authorities Identity: The Brazilian Ministry of Infrastructure Motivation and Perspective. In: Proceedings of the 2021 World of Shipping Portugal, An International Research Conference on Maritime Affairs, 28-29 January 2021, Online Conference via Cisco-Webex, from Portugal to the World.
Abstract: Port activity in Brazil had undergone profound and relevant changes since 1993 when Law 8.630/93 came in force moving the public port service management to the landlord model. This legal framework addressed Antwerp and Rotterdam’s port management principles, aligning the country to public ports’ administrative scenario located in northern Europe. In the latter ones, the landlord model consolidated itself after World War II and remains a strategic reference in port planning through public governance in partnership with private initiative. Thus, Brazilian Port Authorities reached the year 2000 with all the Organised Ports’ operational areas in charge of private enterprises. It seems that, at that moment, the operational port activities undergone by private stevedoring companies was enough for the Federal Government authorities. Therefore, they left behind the remaining points to fully reach the Authorities’ landlord governance model. The other remaining adjustments’ incompleteness provided an open door for strong party-political influence in Port Authorities’ management. In 2013, subject to a political motivation, rather than economic or fiscal demands, the Government brought out a new regulatory framework, Law 12.815. This new law drove Port Authorities’ strategic management to increase further their dependence on the Central Government, including in what concerns infrastructure investments or public bidding, a unique approach provided in the world. Soon after enacting Law 12.815, a new market adaptation process took place, including the standstill of investments while prevailing the Port Authorities’ heavy political influence. In 2019, the new Federal Government further attempted to elaborate on the Port Authorities’ identity. Although the landlord model in Brazil remains not entirely settled, the Brazilian Ministry of Infrastructure considered a new identity for the port authorities based on the private service port model inspired in the United Kingdom and Australian models. This paper assesses the management models that lead Brazilian’s Port Authorities seaports from 1993 to 2020 and their effects that drive the Government toward private service port consideration, outlining a management analytical approach concerning the United Kingdom, Australian and Antwerp models qualitatively. This paper will not explore the different regulatory framework regarding lease terminal and Private User Terminal in Brazil. Also, will not go through the unions’ relationship with leases terminals and Private User Terminals or even the workers’ pension fund, all of them as a legal challenge by the Government to be settled toward fully private service port.
 
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2021 - Co-written with Yui-yip Lau and Tsz Leung Yip. Social Transformation of Cruise Industry: Trends and Future Outlook. In: Proceedings of the 2021 World of Shipping Portugal, An International Research Conference on Maritime Affairs, 28-29 January 2021, Online Conference via Cisco-Webex, from Portugal to the World. (Extended Abstract).
Abstract: Social transformation is an emerging trend in the cruise industry in the 21st century. Cruise lines encounter stiff competition with their competitors and face sophisticated and unpredictable challenges from the wave of social transformation. The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the social transformation phenomena in the cruise industry. As such, we may need to explore how social transformation reshapes the cruise industry. In order to investigate this social transformation, our study builds upon the 4C framework (i.e., Consumer, Technology, and Innovation, Consumer Behaviour, Consumer Experience, and Consumer Psychology) to suggest how cruise lines might take measures to create resilience against the influence affected by the social transformation. To this end, cruise lines can maintain sustainable development In the future.
 
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2019 - Co-written with Julio Manuelito. The ship repair and maintenance industry. A supply chain management perspective. In: Proceedings of the 2019 World of Shipping Portugal, An International Research Conference on Maritime Affairs, 21-22 November, Hotel Riviera, Carcavelos, Portugal.
Abstract: Ship repair and maintenance (SR&M) are important activities that contribute to improve ships’ operations and management. While ships’ crews perform small-scale SR&M activities when ships are at sea, large-scale SR&M activities are carried out by ship repair yards. The latter are often related with ships’ reclassification surveys and are very demanding since they imply removing ships from their commercial operations even for short periods. Large-scale SR&M activities require shipowners to choose the most adequate ship repair yards to perform them and to plan them ahead according to the chosen ship repair yard's schedule and reclassification surveys timeframes. The paper aims at assessing the ship repair yards’ suppliers supply chains by analysing the case of Sadoship in order to assess its pitfalls and opportunities for improvements by means of supply chain mapping techniques. The paper found out that capacity adjustment is the most important aspect, particularly in what concerns labour, because the industry is still labour intensive. Moreover, the outcome suggests that continuous improvement rests on the development of relationship managements, namely on a customer relationship from the perspective of the ship repair yard supplier and that there is scope for the development of training programs.
 
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2015 - Co-written with Cassia Bömer Galvão, Leo Tadeu Robles e Sergio Sampaio Cutrim. Mercado de Cabotagem no Brasil: A Percepção dos Usuários e a Escolha Modal. In: Proceedings of the XXIX Associação Nacional de Pesquisa e Ensino em Transportes (ANPET) Annual Congress, 9-13 November, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Abstract: Brazil economy requires to further develop its existing maritime cabotage services and to promote modal shift from road to sea; as roadway represents the biggest share in its transport matrix. Waterways bigger participation could represent lower logistics costs and environmental benefits. The paper investigated cabotage users' perception and priorities to integrate cabotage into their intermodal transport systems. Therefore, it was analyzed cabotage and transport choice body of literature; it was applied to 326 potential domestic cabotage users, email survey questionnaires, which result in 30 answers suitable to be analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. The 59 service attributes identified were grouped in 13 factors, which explained 89.6% of modal choice. The conclusions show that cabotage users' aim at enhancing logistics integration of transport modes and at adopting modal shift strategies as services provided included information system and times and freight were considered ina doo-to-door basis.
 
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2015 - Co-written with Cassia Bömer Galvão, Leo Tadeu Robles e Sergio Sampaio Cutrim. Domestic Short Sea Shipping Services in Brazil: Competition by Enhancing Logistics Integration. In: Proceedings of the 2015 International Association of Maritime Economists Annual Conference, 24-26 August, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Abstract: Brazil offers a strong potential to further develop its existing maritime cabotage services, i.e. domestic short sea shipping services, (hereinafter referred to as cabotage), and to promote modal shift from road to sea; like other regions in the world, road transport accounts for the biggest share of the total ton-mile demand. The Brazilian monetary stability and gross domestic product growth, in the last decade, also reinforce that cabotage can play a more significant role in the movement of goods and can take advantage of a deficient road transport infrastructure, especially in the long distances between the northern and southern states. This research aims at investigating cabotage users’ perception of cabotage, and at understanding their services priorities to integrate cabotage into multimodal/intermodal transport systems. To achieve this objective, the transport choice body of literature was investigated, an email survey questionnaire was sent to the main domestic cabotage users, and data gathered was analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. The paper is structured in six sections. Conclusions show that cabotage users’ aim at enhancing logistics integration of transport modes and at adopting modal shift strategies.
 
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2015 - Co-written with Manuel Casaca. The Impact of Muddy Bottoms in Ports. In: Proceedings of the 2015 International Association of Maritime Economists Annual Conference, 24-26 August, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Abstract: Ports are drivers of regional and of country’s economic development. Most ports are built close to coastlines, where waters are shallower and tend to suffer from deposit sedimentation processes, which reduces depths in operational areas. In presence of shallow waters and sedimentation, ports are forced to decide whether to dredge or not to dredge, where both decisions have significant impacts on ports’ annual incomes. From a dredging perspective, ports incur into additional operational costs while from a non-dredging perspective ports see their physical characteristics being affected, which in the long term may contribute to a significant decrease in the vessel size that ports can accommodate. Nevertheless, there are seabeds, namely muddy ones, in which vessels can navigate within a degree of safety. The present research aims at validating the theoretical knowledge of vessel´s control in muddy waters at a certain nautical bottom as defined by the World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure. In order of that an email survey was sent to worldwide pilots that manoeuvre ships in muddy waters, to assess if it contributes to reduce the impact of dredgings on ports’ operational costs. The survey validated the theoretical knowledge and indicated that dredging costs can be reduced.
 
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2013 - Improving the competitiveness of the Portuguese maritime cluster. In: Proceedings of the 2013 International Association of Maritime Economists Annual Conference, 3-5 July, Marseille, France.
Abstract: In the wake of the severe problems that Portugal has experienced over the last years, which culminated in the economical and financial crisis that led the TROIKA into the country, many players have advocated that Portugal should develop its ‘economy of the sea’ to promote its economy. Several studies were carried on the promotion of the oceans and of the seas economy, and on the definition of a coherent maritime strategy. The 2009 study on the ‘hypercluster of the sea economy’, a comprehensive body of work, while proposing a list of measures to implement an economy of the sea cluster, failed to define a proper strategy and a timeline to achieve it. Moreover, the study is so wide in scope that fails to define intra- and inter clusters path dependencies. The present work critically assesses the studies carried out to implement the Portuguese ‘hypercluster of the sea economy’ and in the light of the industrial clusters theory the research proposes a ‘maritime cluster’ which can be part of a sustainable economy of the oceans and of the seas. This strategy aims at avoiding the mistakes of the past in what concerns maritime transport to increase the country´s competitiveness. The paper introduces the economy of the oceans and of the seas concept, structure and activities, and clarifies what is ‘maritime’ and what is ‘marine’; the latter are often used interchangeably, when in fact they mean different things. This is an added value for countries that want to implement new oceans and seas related clusters. The paper is structured as follows: Section 1 concerns Introduction and research background; Section 2 reviews the body of literature on industrial clusters theory; Section 3 investigates the existing maritime clusters; Section 4 critically assesses the studies carried out to implement the Portuguese ‘hypercluster of the sea economy’, Section 5 suggests a new maritime cluster approach and its strength in the long-run, and Section 6 presents conclusion and final remarks.
 
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2012 - Co-written with Sónia Carvalho and Mário Oliveira. Marketing Short Sea Shipping Services to Achieve Superior Growth in a Competitive Environment. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Association of Maritime Economists Annual Conference, 5-8 September, Taipei, Taiwan.
Abstract: An insight into the short sea shipping (SSS) external environment shows that there are market opportunities which the industry can grasp depending upon types of services offered, trade routes, cargo nature and parcel size to overcome i) intra-industry competition and ii) competition from other transport modes. From a resource and capacities perspective, the industry has its weaknesses which need to be addressed despite the numerous strengths. When the industry internal and the external elements are brought together the outcome shows that the SSS industry needs to address marketing issues. The present paper aims at developing a marketing framework that helps promoting the SSS industry to achieve superior growth. By superior growth is meant growth that drives a company (or in this case an industry) apart from its competitors, and makes this company (or industry) a market pioneer and leader. To achieve this objective, the paper is structured in the following way: Section 1 concerns introduction; Section 2 revises the body of literature; Section 3 characterises the nature of SSS services; Section 4 investigates SSS environment; Section 5 presents a marketing framework to promote the industry; finally Section 6 addresses conclusions and further recommendations.
 
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2012 - Co-written with Sónia Carvalho and Mário Oliveira. Opportunities and Challenges of Short Sea Shipping- Evaluating the External Environment. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Research Conference on Short Sea Shipping, 2-3 April, Estoril, Portugal, ISBN: 978-972-98324-6-8.
Abstract: The several short sea shipping (SSS) success stories presented by the Commission of the European Communities shows that this mode is economically and environmentally attractive for the movement of freight. Statistical data provided by EUROSTAT has shown that SSS has grown steadily, but its use is still below road transport. Road is still the most utilised mode of transport due to its inherent characteristics and if nothing is done by the industry to curb this trend, this situation tends to aggravate in the future. More often than not, most transport decisions are made by freight forwarders’, 3rd party logistics, 4th party logistics among other economic players as for the end customers it does not matter which mode or combination of modes is used as long as it keeps within its logistics schedules. Numerous reasons could explain this situation, but a critical concerns the little knowledge about the short sea shipping industry (Paixão Casaca and Marlow, 2005) which prevents defining a position of SSS relatively to its competitors. Paixão Casaca and Marlow (2005) went on saying that this situation hampers SSS from developing more collaborative strategies with other modes of transport which affected its integration within multimodal transport chains. To understand the market in order to devise the best strategies the present research work investigates the short sea shipping external environment (opportunities and threats). Unlike the internal environment (strengths and weaknesses) which has been presented in the several Communications released by Commission of the European Communities and by several authors, there is a dearth of research in what concerns the short sea shipping external environment. The focus on short sea shipping external environment also helps to complete the European transport internal market which is an aim of the 2011 White Paper Communication on the ‘Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area’. To achieve this objective the paper is structured in the following way: Section 1 concerns introduction and addresses literature review and methodology; Section 2 characterises short sea shipping services; Section 3 investigates short sea shipping remote environment; Section 4 studies the industry environment; Section 5 presents the short sea shipping operating environment; finally, Section 6 puts forward conclusions and further recommendations.
 
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2011 - Co-written with Sónia Carvalho and Mário Oliveira. Improving port of Sines competitiveness. A benchmarking approach. In: Proceedings of the International Association of Maritime Economists Annual Conference, 25-28 October, Santiago, Chile.
Abstract: Sines is a deepwater port located about 150 km South of Lisbon, and although the port was known for many years as a oil terminal, the situation is no longer the same. Today the port comprehends five terminals serving different trades as a result of an ambitious development plan where the development of Sines Container Terminal (Terminal XXI) is seen as an added value to the port. The terminal was conceded to Port Singapore Authority (PSA) and although it has concentrated its operations in the deep-sea trades, the terminal handles short sea shipping (SSS) traffic as well. This situation results from the strong efforts to integrate the port within the trans-European transport networks Priority Projects 16 and 21 which create business opportunities and challenges. The objective of this paper is to benchmark port of Sines relatively other European ports engaged in SSS/motorways of the sea (MoS) to improve its competitiveness. To achieve this objective a benchmarking technique is used based on information gathered from an email perception survey sent to port authorities investigating the factors that influence port choice within the European SSS market. The choice of a benchmarking technique is explained by its appropriateness to be used in ports as explained by Cuadrado et al. (2004) when conducting a study on Valencia port competitiveness relatively to its competitors. To achieve the above mentioned objective, the paper is structured in six sections. Section 1 concerns introduction. Section 2 describes Port of Sines; Section 3 addresses performance measurement, puts forward the benchmarking technique and investigates studies carried out in the port industry; Section 4 introduces the methodology and reference is made to port choice studies; Section 5 addresses the outcome of the analysis. Finally Section 6 presents conclusions and further recommendations.
 
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2010 - Co-written with Sónia Carvalho and Mário Oliveira. Port choice in the European short sea shipping market: The viewpoint of port authorities. In: Proceedings of the International Association of Maritime Economists Annual Conference, 7-9 July, Lisbon, Portugal.
Abstract: The establishment of short sea shipping/motorways of the sea services integrated into multimodal/intermodal transport chains require and effective integrated logistics so that freight can be moved from one mode to the other without incurring any costs related with bureaucracy or lack of port capacity. The choice of ports through which goods are conveyed becomes an important issue in the configuration of the logistics network which eventually contributes to an increased inter-port competition. With this in mind, the present paper aims at investigating port choice in the European short sea shipping marketing from the perspective of port authorities. Two reasons underlie this research: firstly, there is a gap in the literature in what concerns this research area since most studies address deep sea traffic; secondly the findings can be used as a benchmarking for ports to position relatively one another. To achieve the above mentioned objective the paper is structured in the following way: Section 1 concerns introduction and presents the European short sea shipping industry; Section 2 analysis the literature on port choice criteria within a short sea shipping environment; Section 3 presents research methodology; Section 4 shows survey results and Section 5 presents conclusions and further comments.
 
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2010 - Co-written with Sónia Carvalho and Mário Oliveira. Developing the Portuguese national fleet. A policy analysis. In: Proceedings of the International Association of Maritime Economists Annual Conference, 7-9 July, Lisbon, Portugal.
Abstract: For many years vessels registered under Portuguese flag were numerous. Trade between Portugal and its ex-colonies in Africa maintained the fleet occupied despite the world crises that were taking place. After the 1974 revolution, the fleet started to disappear and it is no longer the same. The Governments that followed have taken policy measures but despite this effort the situation has not improved. The objective of the present paper is to analyse the Portuguese shipping policy and its impacts on the fleet and propose new policy guidelines that may improve the present situation taking into considerations the different policy instruments adopted by other Member-States of the European Union. To achieve this objective the paper is structured in the following way: Section 1 concerns introduction and highlights the importance of having a good shipping policy; Section 2 analyses maritime transport in Portugal and identifies three distinct periods; Section 3 presents a critical analysis of the overall situation and the impacts on the traditional Portuguese flagged fleet; Section 4 investigates policy topics and instruments adopted by the different Member–States and out of this list identifies the ones that can be implemented in the short medium, and long-term, and Section 5 addresses conclusions and further recommendations.
 
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2006 - Co-written with Peter B. Marlow. Short sea shipping logistics strategies in Europe - revisited, In: Proceedings of the International Association of Maritime Economists Annual Conference, 12-14 July, Melbourne, Australia.
Abstract: Short sea shipping (SSS) is viewed as a potential means of shifting goods from road to underused transport capacity.  The European Commission has proposed numerous actions and roads-to-water style initiatives for its development and the most recent one is the concept of the motorways of the sea. In this context, this paper examines the effectiveness of short sea shipping when used as part of multi-modal logistics supply chains. It considers the attributes required to participate effectively in such chains and the logistics strategies which might be developed to improve the competitiveness of the short sea shipping mode.  The analysis will be based on empirical research involving logistics operators, shippers’ associations and intermodal rail operators.
 
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2005 - Port training in the new member countries of the European Union. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Port Training Conference, 8-11 May, Setubal, Portugal.
Abstract: The establishment and implementation of a training programme requires that a training assessment needs takes place. Without this approach, more often than not, training programmes have failed to succeed. The performance of such an assessment also requires that the instructional designer, i.e. the person in charge for this work, follows a methodology. The port industry, more than any other industries, has lacked the implementation of these methodologies; this is shown by the lack of research work published in academic journals. With a view to fill the existing gap, the present paper has proposed a five-step training assessment needs methodology to be used in the port industry; moreover, it applies the first three steps of the proposed methodology to carry out the study about port training situation in the new European Union Member-States. To achieve this objective, the present paper is structured in the following way: Section 1 puts the research work into context; Section 2 addresses the role of ports in transport; Section 3 makes an insight into port training needs assessment issues; Section 4 explains research methodology; Section 5 addresses port training issues in the new European-Member States and Section 6 presents conclusions and further comments.
 
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2003 - Co-written with Peter B. Marlow. The competitiveness of short sea shipping in multimodal logistics supply chains. In: Proceedings of the International Association of Maritime Economists Annual Conference, 3-5 de September, Pusan, South Korea.
Abstract: This paper examines the attributes of short sea shipping operations within a multimodal transport chain and discusses the development of short sea shipping best practice in a logistics context. The analysis is based on empirical research, involving logistics operators, shippers’ associations and intermodal rail operators, and allows an evaluation (based on statistical techniques) of the short sea shipping industry and its competitors. It extends previous work by considering these short sea shipping attributes within a multimodal transport context. This paper is structured in five sections.
 
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2002 - Co-written with Peter B. Marlow. Measuring Lean Port Performance. In: Proceedings of the International Association of Maritime Economists Annual Conference, 13-15 November, Panama.
Abstract: Ports have traditionally made use of quantitative measures to assess their performance. While contributing towards ranking a port in the worldwide context or even classifying ports according to their size, these provide little information about the quality of the services being offered. The trends in contemporary logistics and the emerging of the new economy mean that successful ports can no longer sustain this approach. The development of agile ports or ports of the fourth generation requires that a new approach to measuring port performance is developed. Since the development of agile ports requires the implementation of a two-stage integration process, the internal and the external one, it is therefore proposed that a two-tier measurement of port performance indicators is also developed. These new port measurement indicators, besides considering quantitative aspects, will focus mainly on qualitative issues and will bring increasing visibility within the port and along the transport chain which will lead to a better integration of these logistics elements within the supply chain. Qualitative performance indicators are at the heart of lean ports and consequently of port networking. Additionally, they support the implementation of a total quality port management system thereby encouraging continuous improvements. The objective of this paper is to suggest a set of new port performance indicators that measure lean ports performance and sustain the subsequent development of agile ports.
 
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2001 - Co-written with Peter B. Marlow. Agility, a key enabler in port competition. In: Proceedings of the International Association of Maritime Economists Annual Conference, 18-20 July, Hong-Kong.
Abstract: The importance that ports have within the international and national environments is immense. Without them, cargoes simply could not be traded. However, after the Second World War, the changes in the shipping industry caused by a revolution in ships’ technologies brought many changes whose impacts are still seen today in the form of increasing port competition. This paper will discuss the changing roles of ports and their function in modern logistics supply chains. In this context it will review the competitive position of ports and will consider reasons why they must change from third generation to fourth generation ports to fulfil their new roles properly and to achieve agility. The objective of this paper is to analyse how agility can become a key enabler in port competition, not only to overcome the traditional port competitive factors but also to influence the development of sustainable transport systems, which are environmentally friendly. This paper will provide a definition of agile ports and analyses the impacts such a change will have on the supply chains.
 
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2000 - The concepts of flexibility and agility from an intermodality point of view. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Maritime Technological Innovations and Research, Cadiz, Spain, 8-11 November.
Abstract: The more competitive the market becomes, the more strategies companies need to find and take to be able to survive. It is not a matter of increasing market share but staying alive in it. Under such environment more than ever, outsourcing has become one of the main issues. Suppliers of raw materials or work-in-progress as well as new channels of distribution enter the ever more complex supply chain. To achieve the position of goods at the final market, transport systems, interfaces, either inland or port, must be able to solve the connectivity and interoperability between modes. The desired shift of goods from road to sea will be able to take place. What is being asked is that these interfaces are able to respond to the logistic concepts of flexibility and agility. What this paper is aiming at is finding out how those interfaces incorporate such logistic concepts into their daily life.
 
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2000 - Co-written with Candida Mourão and Margarida Pato. Ship Assignment with Hub-Spoke Constraints. A Case Study. In: Proceedings of the 6th Conference at the Mathematics Applied to Economics and Management Conference, CEMAPRE (Centro de Matemática Aplicada à Previsão e à Decisão Económica) of the Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão, of the Portuguese Technical University, 5-7 June, Lisbon, Portugal.
 
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1999 - Logistics Necessities of SSS Transport Operators. In: Proceedings of the International Congress Ship and Maritime Transport 99, 28-29 September, Hamburg, Germany.
 
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