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Maritime Education during COVID-19 Pandemic
Dear Colleagues and Friends,
Traditionally, maritime training/education has been carried out in an in-class environment, even though there are a limited number of successful cases of maritime distance (including online) training. One of the reasons explaining this traditional approach may be the fact that the industry is so much dependent on business relationships between individuals.
The March – June 2020 confinement, taking place due to the COVID-19 Pandemic, shifted education/training from the physical to the virtual environment where all lecturers/trainers have been forced into a new lecturing/teaching situation. However, as as we move into the future, the industry needs to adapt to this new context, and the COVID-19 Pandemic will undoubtedly bring some changes even in the maritime training/education environment.
It is clear from a resources perspective that this educational/training segment has evolved considerably. New training concepts, methodologies and the range of available technologies are available in the market. The positive point of this evolutionary path is that the Internet holds a range of vast (and useful) resources either developed by individuals or organisations (including Universities).
With this in mind, we question the extent to which the maritime education/training was prepared to 1) deal with this shift and 2) incorporate this vast range of available online resources to keep education/training moving. Therefore, the objective of the survey is to study the integration of online education/training in global maritime education/training context. At the moment that a new school year is about to begin, this assessment is still critical, since there are still challenges to be faced as it is unknown how the COVID -19 Pandemic will evolve.

As such, we welcome you to participate in the online survey presented below. Please be assured that all individual responses will be held in the strictest confidence, and no specific details about Respondents’ and/or Institutions will be reported. Only the authors of this research (I and my colleague Amelia Loja) will have access to the information/data gathered, and therefore, risks to respondents are minimal. Moreover, the survey bears no costs.

The success of this research depends upon your feedback!
Keep safe!
Greetings from Lisbon
Ana Casaca and Amelia Loja
PART A: Respondent's Profile (Questions 1 to 6)
 
1) Your Name:
 
 
2) Your Email:
 
 
3) You Gender:
 
Male Female
 
4) Your Age:
  Years
 
5) Your educational qualification? Please select all the boxes that apply.
Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree Doctorate (PhD) Habilitation
 
6) Where did you obtain your highest educational qualification? Please indicate University and Country.
 
 
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PART B: Respondent's Current Working Situation (Questions 7 to 15)
 
7) Where are you working? Please indicate the name of the Institution and Country.
 
 
8) Your Institution's Number of Employees? Please select only one button.
Less than or equal to 100 Between 101 and 200 Between 201 and 300 Greater than or equal to 301
 
9) Your Institution's Number of Students? Please select only one button.
Less than or equal to 1000 Between 1001 and 2000 Between 2001 and 3000 Greater than or equal to 3001
 
10) Which roles do you play at your Institution? Please select all the boxes that apply.
Managerial Lecturing/Teaching Consultancy
Administrative Research  
 
11) Number of years involved in lecturing/teaching activities?
  Years
 
12) In which teaching sector do you primarily work? Please select all the boxes that apply.
Higher Education (University/College) Soft Skills Training
Vocational Educational Training Professional Training/Professional Development Programmes
Technical or Technology Training Team Training
Quality Training Managerial Training
Skills Training Safety Training
 
13) How do you classify your lecturing/teaching experience? Please select only one button.
Very Poor Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent Exceptional
 
14) What disciplines do you lecture/teach? Please select all the boxes that apply.
Marketing Channels Hydrography Maritime Informatics and MIS
International Logistics Logistics English Terminology Law of the Sea
Logistics and Supply Chain Manag. Maritime English Terminology Shipping Law
Transport Management and Operations Nautical English Terminology Maritime Law
Blue Growth - Integrated CZM Seaport English Terminology Law of Carriage of Goods by Sea
Maritime Spatial Planning and Surveill. Maritime History Marine Insurance Law
Ocean Governance Introduction to Shipping Maritime Arbitration and Mediation
Marine Ecology and Sustainable Manag. Tanker Chartering Port Economics and Finance
Economics and Trade Dry Bulk Chartering Port Management
International Economics Liner Shipping Port Planning and Organisation
Commodity Trading Ship Sale and Purchase Port and Terminal Management
Transport Economics Shipbuilding and Ship Repair Shipping and Port Policy
Economics of Sea Transport Shipping Agency Statistical Analysis
Naval Architecture/Engineering Financial Management Advanced Statistics
Ship Technology Managerial Accounting Mathematics for Maritime Economists
Navigation and Seamanship Shipping Finance and Accounting Strategic Manag. in Shipping and Ports
Safety and Security at Sea Shipping Operations and Management HRM in Shipping and Ports
Marine Pollution Risk Management in Shipping Marketing in Shipping and Ports
Oceanography Decision Making in Maritime Operations Quality in Shipping and Ports
     
Other 1. Please indicate: Other 2. Please indicate: Other 3. Please indicate:
 
15) In what concerns research, which activities apply? Please select all the boxes that apply.
Own Research PhD Thesis Supervision Peer Review / Proposals Evaluation
Bachelor Projects Supervision Research Proposals No Research Activities
Master Thesis Supervision Research Projects  
 
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PART C: Online Training Pre-Covid-19 (Questions 16 to 22)
 
16) Have you delivered online lecturing/teaching before the Covid-19 Pandemic? Please select only one button.
 
Yes No
  If 'Yes' carry on with the survey.
  If 'No' go to Question 22.
 
17) How much online lecturing/teaching experience have you (including hybrid face-to-face and online teaching such as blended or flipped)? Please select only one button.
Less than or equal to 12 months Between 25 and 36 months
Between 13 and 24 months Greater than or equal to 37 months
 
18) What type of online lecturing/teaching have you delivered? Please select all the boxes that apply.
Blended learning (incl. Flipped Classroom) Fixed E-Learning Interactive Online Learning
Synchronous Online Learning Adaptive E-Learning Individual Online Learning
Asynchronous Online Learning Linear E-Learning Collaborative Online Learning
 
19) How do you perceive the adoption/development of online lecturing/teaching? For each perception variable, please select only one button.
Adoption / development of online lecturing/teaching Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
You are enthusiastic about online lecturing/teaching.
You are passionate about the use of technology in education.
Online lecturing/teaching is relevant to your practice.
Your willingness to learn new technologies.
You are not bound by geography.
To increase students’ engagement in the subject area; online lecturing/teaching may be more engaging than classroom learning.
To improve students' learning by encouraging more student collaboration and creating opportunity for greater student interaction.
Students can have access to a greater range of resources and learning materials 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Students enjoy learning more when technology is integrated into lecturing/teaching activities.
To improve students’ digital literacy.
To improve administration processes.
The feedback is faster and more frequent.
You can create teaching efficiencies.
To increase the potential for personalised learning for students.
To offer learning support between classes.
On-line learning is getting a good reputation.
The online classroom is good preparation for a changing workforce.
Students are demanding online learning options.
It is a requirement of your institution / you need to comply with an institutional policy.
Online lecturing/teaching can be a means to offer cheaper education.
 
20) How did you perceive the challenges you faced when adopting or developing online lecturing/teaching practices? For each challenge, please select only one button.
Challenges when adopting/developing online lecturing/teaching Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Unless thoughtfully designed, online instruction can turn students into passive observers rather than active participants.
The employment of the most adequate instructional strategy.
Keeping students connected, motivated and engaged.
Being able to provide regular and frequent feedback to students to keep them engaged and committed.
Encouraging collaboration among students since most assignments involve asynchronous communications.
Grading students.
Lack of awareness about the most adequate e-learning platform.
Problems with bandwidth and connectivity issues.
Lack of computer literacy among a mainstream population.
Lack of e-content of high quality.
 
21) Based on your experience, how confident do you feel about your ability in delivering online teaching? Please select only one button.
Not confident Slightly Confident Somewhat Confident Confident Pretty Confident Very Confident Extremely Confident
 
Please, go to Question 23 in PART D.
 
22) How do you perceive the factors that prevented you from adopting or developing online lecturing/teaching? For each factor, please select only one button.
Factors preventing developing online lecturing/teaching Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhatt Disagree Neutral Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Not interest at all in adopting or developing online lecturing/teaching.
Lack of interest from the students.
Lack of institutional support.
Unsure about my institution’s position on the use of online lecturing/teaching.
Time restrictions.
Having to learn new technologies.
Access to and ability to use relevant online technologies.
Some of the technologies to be used do not have a free version available.
Difficulties in planning online lecturing/teaching.
Uncertain of effective pedagogies for online lecturing/teaching.
Unsure of how class assessment requirements could be translated into an online context.
Unsure of which activities or tasks are best suited to online lecturing/teaching.
Unsure of how to evaluate the online activities and tasks.
Unsure of whether learning outcomes in online teaching are the same as those in face-to-face lecturing/teaching.
Lack of bandwidth and connectivity issues.
Course content issues.
Lack of knowledge about the online lecturing/teaching tools available.
 
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PART D: Online Training During Covid-19 Pandemics (Questions 23 - 48)
 
23) How difficult it was for you to adapt your life and deliver your online lecturing/teaching? Please select only one button.
Not Difficult Slightly Difficult Somewhat Difficult Difficult Quite Difficult Very Difficult Extremely Difficult
 
24) What type of instructional strategies did you use for your online lecturing/teaching? Please select all the boxes that apply.
Direct Instruction Interactive Instruction Independent Study
Indirect Instruction Experiential Learning  
 
25) What type of online lecturing/teaching have you delivered during this period? Please select all the boxes that apply.
Synchronous Online Learning Adaptive E-Learning Individual Online Learning
Asynchronous Online Learning Linear e-Learning Collaborative Online Learning
Fixed E-Learning Interactive Online Learning  
 
26) What instructional methods and means did you use for delivering synchronous online learning? Please select all the boxes that apply.
METHODS    
Synchronous Lectures Didactic Questions Learning contracts
PowerPoints Concept quiz Projects
Discussion Compare and Contrast Collaborative Learning
Demonstrations Simulations Mentorship
Use of video clips Games  
MEANS    
Streaming video platforms Live chats, individually or course-wide Virtual office hours
Web conferencing tools Telephone availability
 
27) What instructional methods and means did you use for delivering asynchronous online learning? Please select all the boxes that apply.
METHODS    
Self-guided lesson modules/Self-directed learning/Guided Design Concept quiz Select a set of readings
Downloadable pre-recorded lectures Problem-Based Learning Projects Collaborative Learning
Microsoft PowerPoint presentations with or without voice-over Case studies Projects
Posted lecture notes Podcasts Learning contracts
Forums and discussion boards Small Group Work  
MEANS    
Video platforms Email communication Google Drive and Similar Collaborative Tools
Virtual libraries / Virtual resource centres Social Media Platforms Tools for off-hour support, namely virtual tutoring centre
 

PLANNING ONLINE LECTURING/TEACHING

 
28) How do you perceive the planning factors pesented below, when planning your online lecturing/teaching? For each planning factor, please select only one button.
Planning Factors Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Developing a teaching approach based on learning outcomes.
Evaluate which aspects of a class can benefit from being done online.
Set an itinerary for online synchronous sessions rather than playing it as you go.
Designing tasks that help students to build knowledge and skills.
Designing tasks that help students to improve their digital literacy.
Chose the technology that is relevant and suitable for the purpose.
Learn how to work with the technology.
Develop strategies to ensure that students are engaged in online learning.
Decide on whether to use an open technology or Learning Management Systems (LMS).
Provide access or create dedicated online resources.
Decide on which online assessments.
 
29) How many hours per week, did you spend with the planning of your online lecturing/teaching activities? in number of hours.
  hours
 

DEVELOPING RESOURCES

 
30) When considering the delivery of resources to be given to the students did you took the time to prepare your own or did you use online resources created by others? Please select only one button.
Developed your own Used resources prepared by others Both Resources
 
31) How do you perceive your concerns when using online resources prepared by other others in your online teaching? For each concern, please select only one button.
Concerns when using online resources Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Ensure that such resources are open resources and therefore accessible by the students.
Ensure that students are given the links rather than documents.
Check the copyrights of the resources created by others.
Check the suitability, quality or validity of the content.
Check how they can be incorporated into the lecturing/teaching activities.
 
32) How do you perceive your evaluation about the suitability, quality or validity of the content of an online resource, i.e. resources prepared by others? For each aspect, please select only one button.
Aspects to be considered when evaluating online resources Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Alignment to learning outcomes.
Clarity of explanation of the subject matter.
Accuracy or validity of information.
Reputation and appropriateness of the source.
Functionality of the resource.
Relevance of activities or assessment.
Suitability / Appropriateness of the technology required.
Pedagogic design.
Production quality.
Accessibility.
Age and education level appropriateness.
Copyright issues.
Hidden costs related to use.
 

USE OF TECHNOLOGY

 
33) What type of technologies have you used? Please select only one button.
Open (Free) Technologies Closed (Paid) Technologies Both Technologies
 
34) How do you perceive the reasons below regarding the adoption of open technologies? For each reason, please select only one button.
Reasons fostering the adoption of open technologies Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Reduced costs and simplified operations.
Direct access to customisable code.
Accelerated innovation.
Improved interoperability.
Superior code quality and security.
Enhanced pedagogy.
 
35) How familiar are you with the tools/products commonly used in online learning and teaching practice? For each tool/product, please select only one button.
Tools/products used in online learning/teaching practice Not Familiar Slightly Familiar Somewhat Familiar Familiar Quite Familiar Very Familiar Extremely Familiar
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Virtual Classroom tools such as Edunation, NewRow, Learn Cube.
Video conferencing such as Zoom, CiscoWebex.
Learning Management Systems (LMS) such as Moodle, Canvas, Totara.
Open Educational Resources.
Discussion forums for general questions and answers.
Discussion forums for class discussion.
Tools for making and sharing publications incl. eBooks.
Tools for making and sharing Videos.
Tools for making and sharing Podcasts.
Online quizzes.
Online assignment submission tools.
Online collaboration tools.
Wikis.
Blogs.
Peer assessment tools.
ePortfolios.
Social media such as Facebook or Twitter, Instagram or Pinterest..
Online video.
Mobile apps.
Interactive online activities or games.
iTunes U courses.
 
36) What type of Video conferencing tools have you used? Please select all the boxes that apply.
Zoom Google Hangouts Bluejeans
SKYPE Google Meet Microsoft Teams
Cisco Webex Meetings GoToMeeting  
 
37) How would you rate your skill and effectiveness in using the technologies indicated in Question 36 in your online lecturing/teaching? Please select only one button.
Not confident Slightly Confident Somewhat Confident Confident Pretty Confident Very Confident Extremely Confident
 
38) How confident do you feel about your ability to adapt and integrate digital technologies effectively in your lecturing/teaching? Please select only one button.
Not confident Slightly Confident Somewhat Confident Confident Pretty Confident Very Confident Extremely Confident
 
39) Digital literacy which relates to "finding, evaluating, using, and creating digital content in meaningful and responsible ways" (Source: https://natlib.govt.nz/schools/digital-literacy/strategies-for-developing-digital-literacy/digital-content-finding-evaluating-using-and-creating-it). As such, how do you rate:
 
(a) your ability to find, evaluate, and compose clear information through writing and other media on various digital platforms? Please select only one button.
Not Able Slightly Able Somewhat Able Able Pretty Able Very Able Extremely Able
 
(b) your students’ ability to find, evaluate, and compose clear information through writing and other media on various digital platforms? Please select only one button.
Not Able Slightly Able Somewhat Able Able Pretty Able Very Able Extremely Able
 
40) How do you perceive the strategies below to be most appropriate to develop digital literacy? For each strategy, please select only one button.
Strategies appropriate to develop digital literacy Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Implement activities / tasks where students find, evaluate and share information using a range of online technologies and tools.
Encourage self-exploration
Create an online resource guide and instructions on how to use the chosen online technologies.
Evaluate your current eLearning strategy.
Include digital literacy simulations.
Encourage learner-generated e-learning content.
Host a live event.
Provide guidelines on online safety.
Provide guidelines how to evaluate content.
 

DELIVERING ONLINE LECTURING/TEACHING

 
41) How do you perceive the strategies below when delivering your online lecturing/teaching? For each strategy, please select only one button.
Strategies for delivering online lecturing/teaching Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Know the technology.
Expect the unexpected and remain flexible due to disruptions in technology.
Create and maintain a strong presence.
Set clear expectations for the course / Tell students what to expect.
Establish a sense of comfort and develop a community of learners.
Promote reflection and communication through quality asynchronous discussion.
Have a good balance of active leader and active observer.
Request regular feedback and be mindful of misinterpretation.
Regularly check content resources and applications.
Encourage clear, concise dialogue.
Do a quick social check-in at the beginning of class.
Ask students to keep their cameras on.
Encourage timely participation.
Ask students to collect information before class.
Ask two or three open-ended questions to provide opportunity for ongoing dialogue.
Make the subject being taught relevant, then highlight the relevance.
Pose a question and give participants a moment to write.
Ask students to come with at least one burning question about the topic at hand.
Make sure your synchronous session offers novel content, insights, or activities thus avoid duplicating what is covered elsewhere in the course.
Use synchronous sessions as consultations.
Ask questions that require students to pick a side. When students are asked to state an opinion, they become more invested in discussing it.
Create a safe environment.
Use group discussions / Rotate students or groups.
 

ASSESSMENT

 
42) How do you perceive the issues below when implementing an online exam? For each issue, please select only one button.
Issues arising when implementing an online assessment Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
The time spent planning the online exam
Deciding on which technology to use given the wide range of technologies available in higher education.
The need to design a more structured exam with clear questions since students are unable to ask questions if they do not understand them.
The need to be more creative; for instance, using drag-and-drop, image-based or even audio-based activities.
The choice of questions to be asked since the questions marked automatically may be limited to multiple choice questions.
Ensure that the questions asked are appropriate to the technology being used. 
The possibility that students taking online exams remotely can cheat.
The need to have students with their cameras on.
The students’ level of Information technology literacy.
Level of Internet connectivity to avoid any sort of disruptions.
The choice of a reliable tool to guarantee a good performance during the online exam.
The need to create a large set of questions so that no one taking the exam ends up taking the same test.
 
43) How do you perceive the methods below when conducting your online assessments? For each method, please select only one button.
Conducting Online Assessment Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Traditional assessment submitted online: Essays; Case studies; Article reviews; Proposal writing; Report writing.
Automated online assessment: Online Quizzes (MCQs, MRQs, FIBs, T/F, matching, ordering); In-video quizzes; Assessment of prior knowledge.
Invigilated online assessment: Mid-semester exams; Final exams (MCQs, short answers, essays)
Online interaction: Contributions to forums, chats, blogs and wikis; Reading summaries; Collaborative learning; Critical reviews.
Group assessments online: Online presentations; Group online projects; Role play; Online debates.
Critical reflection and meta-cognition: Electronic portfolios; Online journals, logs, diaries, blogs, wikis; Embedded reflective activities; Peer & self-assessment
Authentic assessment: Scenario based learning; Laboratory/field trip reports; Simulations; Case studies/Role play; Online oral presentations and/or debate.
 
44) For each of the assessment tools presented below, please indicate the ones that you have used and heard of? Please select all the boxes that apply.
  Have Used Have Heard
Poll Everywhere.
Moodle.
Socrative Response system.
Quiz Revolution.
Google Forms.
Mentimeter.
Kahoot - game-based assessment tool.
Quizizz.
Easy Test Maker.
Quizlet.
Respondus.
Desire2Learn.
Gradescope.
Questionmark.
Blackboard Gradebook.
Review.
Turnitin Grade Anything.
 
45) Please assess each of the benefits and pitfalls of online assessment presented below? For each benefit and pitfall, please select only one button.
Benefits and Pitfalls of online assessment Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Benefits of online assessment              
It eliminates the need for paper submissions.
It reduces the administrative burden of organising and running exams.
It increases the test evaluation objectivity.
Marks can be more easily benchmarked across all teachers teaching the same course.
It allows a quicker marking and announcement of the exam results.
Teachers/Lecturers can distribute multiple versions of the exams and assignments if there is an approved bank of questions.
The marking and the moderation of exam results are streamlined, secure and standardised.
It is more environmentally friendly because it results in the usage of less paper, printing and transport used overall.
It allows offering exams to candidates located over greater geographical areas.
It offers improved security since all exam papers, candidate details, marks and results are digitally stored.
It also allows remote invigilation,
It facilitates quick and clear reports on candidate results and progress.
It is more cost effective, due the vast reduction in administrative time managing the whole exam creation, delivery and marking process.
In presence of multiple-choice questions, they can be marked automatically.
They do not need to be collected or transferred from office to home and then from home to office.
It allows the authentication of the participants writing the exam.
               
Pitfalls of online assessment              
The implementation of an online assessment necessitates a period of familiarisation with the technology being used.
Students require some training using mock exams, training videos, training sessions to feel confident.
It requires the installation of the computer infrastructure if no on-line exam systems exist.
Software runtime problems can have a negative impact when online assessment is taking place.
Technology is not always reliable, and information can be lost if a system breaks down.
The costs of setting up an electronic assessment system can cost thousands of Euros/American Dollars.
It is not suitable for collaborative evaluations or group projects.
Answers of online assessments can only be right or wrong. There is no room for explaining your answer or getting partial credit. Online assessments do not give teachers the options to see your line of thinking to get to your answer.
 

CONFIDENCE

 
46) Based on the experience gained, how do you assess your overall confidence in lecturing/teaching online? Please select only one button.
Not confident Slightly Confident Somewhat Confident Confident Pretty Confident Very Confident Extremely Confident
 
47) How do you assess each of the Confidence Factors when lecturing/teaching online? For each confidence factor, please select only one button.
Confidence Factors Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
You are confident that you can teach/lecture effectively.
You are confident in using new teaching approaches.
You are able to overcome the challenges if something goes wrong with your online lecturing/teaching.
You can ask for help and support from colleagues and/or institution staff when needed.
You are given the opportunity to review and update frequently your course content.
You are confident with the opportunity to review and update the learning activities of your courses
You are confident with the opportunity to review and update assessment strategies.
You understand the relationship between learning outcomes and assessments.
You are aware of classroom management techniques to deal with disruptive behaviour in a virtual environment.
You feel confident in using online technologies in your lecturing/teaching.
You feel comfortable teaching a fully online course.
It enabled you doing things that you could not have done in a face-to-face environment.
It offered the flexibility of when and where I did the activity.
It saved you time.
It enabled me to share ideas and communicate with others effectively.
It gave me quick access to a lot of relevant information.
It made the process of doing the activity easier and more efficient.
 
48) Based on the experience gained, are you willing to go on with in lecturing/teaching online? Please select only one button.
Very Unlikely Unlikely Somewhat Unlikely Undecided Somewhat Likely Likely Very Likely
 
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PART E: Results (Question 49)
 
49) Would you like to receive a summary of the results?  
 
Yes No
Thank you for participating in this important study!
After submitting your response, do not close the webpage until the system acknowledges the submission of the survey response!

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 Home > Contents > Research & Development

Part A: Respondent's

Profile

Part B: Respondents

Current Situation

Part C: Online Training

Pre-COVID-19

Part D: Online Training During COVID-19

Pandemics

Part E: Results
 
 
2020 © Ana Cristina Casaca   Updated @ 24 September 2020